Category Archives: Colorado prostitution history

Good Time Girls of Colorado: A Red-Light History of the Centennial State

c 2019 by Jan MacKell Collins

A quick note about this book: expanding on the research I have done for Brothels, Bordellos & Bad Girls: Prostitution in Colorado 1860-1930 (University of New Mexico Press, 2004) and Red Light Women of the Rocky Mountains (University of New Mexico Press, 2009 – out of print), presented here are some notable shady ladies like Mattie Silks, Jennie Rogers, Laura Evens and others. Also included however, are some ladies seldom written about: French Blanche LeCoq, Lou Bunch and Laura Bell McDaniel (whom I was pleased to first introduce to the world clear back in 1999).

Why do I write about historical prostitution? Because I believe that these women made numerous unseen, unappreciated contributions to the growth of the American West. They paid for fines, fees, business licenses and liquor licenses in their towns. They shopped local, buying their clothing, furniture, food, jewelry, medicine and other needed items from local merchants. These women were often angels of mercy, donating to the poor, helping the needy, and making or procuring sizeable donations for churches, schools and other organizations. Many took care of their customers when they were sick, or sometimes when they became elderly.

Hollywood and the general public like to laugh at and shame women of the night for selling sex for a living. In reality, these women often turned to prostitution as the only viable way to make enough money to survive. Theirs was one of the most dangerous professions of the time, the threat of devastating depression, domestic violence, disease, pregnancy and often subsequent abortion, and alcohol or drug related issues being very real issues the ladies faced daily.

I hope you enjoy reading this book as much as I enjoyed writing it and furthering the truth about our good time girls from the past. You can order it here: https://rowman.com/ISBN/9781493038060/Good-Time-Girls-of-Colorado-A-Red-Light-History-of-the-Centennial-State

Colorado City, Colorado: Gateway to the Goldfields

c 2019 by Jan MacKell Collins

Portions of this article have appeared in the Colorado Gambler magazine and the Ute Pass Vacation Guide

In 1859, the rough and tumble town of Colorado City debuted as the portal to Ute Pass, next to what would eventully become Colorado Springs, Colorado. The pass was an ancient Indian trail skirting up the north base of Pikes Peak and on to the gold fields on the western side of the state. As  more travelers utilized the pass in their quest for gold, Colorado City grew in the form of stick‑built shacks and log cabins. Later, fine stone and brick structures would mingle with tidy wood bungalows and impressive Victorian homes.

Everything a prospector could want was available in Colorado City, including mining supplies, pack mules, grub and grog. There were also a variety of vices, from drinking and dining to poker and prostitution. Local merchants made a tidy profit on the transient population, which flowed constantly in and out of town.

When Colorado Springs was platted in 1872, liquor was banned within its city limits. Then in 1878, Manitou Springs formed to the west. Colorado City, nestled snugly between the two resort towns, prospered: not only as a “sin city” but as a blue collar town as well. A number of railroad workers were employed by the Colorado Midland Railroad. Local mills, namely the Golden Cycle Mill, processed gold ore shipped by train from teh famed Cripple Creek District on the back side of Pikes Peak, and other area mines. The city became a mesh of church‑going families, would‑be prospectors, wild folk and nomads.

Look down Colorado Avenue today and it is easy to envision a Colorado City of the past. Horse races and shoot outs took place on the dirt streets with alarming frequency. Wagons and horses sent pedestrians scurrying as the street bustled with life. The old buildings sported every business house imaginable, and the shouts of street hawkers mingled with the bawdy music flowing from the saloons.

Upwards of 24 taverns once lined the south side of Colorado Avenue. Many of them connected via underground tunnels to the respectable businesses on the north side of the street. In back of the saloons, madams like Laura Bell McDaniel, Mamie Majors and Nellie White were the reigning pleasure queens. The houses of “ill fame” spanned four blocks on Cucharras St. The lawmen and temperance unions of Colorado City levied their own public war against the shameful nightlife, but it was sometimes a losing battle. When the city outlawed liquor, some of the saloon owners and prostitutes started their own town, Ramona, outside the city limits.

On the north side of town, churches, lodges, meeting halls and more respectable social places mingled among the quaint homes and upstanding citizens of the town. Still, there were some real characters adding much color to Colorado City. Prairie Dog O’Byrne’s taxi wagon held a cage with a pet prairie dog inside and was pulled by two tame elk. Judge Baldwin was an honorary judge who was known for his love of libations. Anthony Bott, a founder of the town, also made a name for himself in the Cripple Creek District. Dusty McCarty was a blinded miner who honed his skills at bartending and was the best source of where to go and what to do in town. Bob Ford, the killer of Jesse James, dealt faro in Colorado City before going off to Creede and getting killed.

In 1917 Colorado City was annexed to Colorado Springs, and Colorado City’s wild days ended. Since that time, the city has evolved into an historic section of the Pikes Peak region with a variety of novelty  shops, boutiques and eateries. Neighborhood tours reveal an outstanding array of unique architectural designs, including a few pre-manufactured homes that were literally purchased from catalogs—in essence, the first modular homes in the state.

The Old Colorado City History Center at 1 South 24th Street houses a museum with photographs and hundreds of artifacts outlining Colorado City’s wild and woolly past. To see historic Colorado City on the way to Cripple Creek, take Highway 24 west at Colorado Springs and turn right at 21st Street. For more information, call the Old Colorado History Center at 719-636-1225 or the Old Colorado City Associates at 719-577-4112.

The Mysterious Disappearance of Melinda Brolin

c 2019 by Jan MacKell Collins

Parts of this article originally appeared in the Ute Pass Vacation Guide in 2002.

Today’s “Old Colorado City”, located due west of Colorado Springs, Colorado, is filled with kitschy shops, great restaurants and comfy pubs. Most of them are housed in beautiful historic buildings, some dating back to the late 1800’s. From the time it was founded in 1859 to its annexation to Colorado Springs in the early 1900’s, Colorado City fairly howled with history in the way of saloons, gambling and giddy girls.

When Colorado Springs was founded as the elite “Saratoga of the West” in 1874, there was naturally an uproar over the goings-on in bawdy Colorado City. Liquor, gambling houses and prostitution was outlawed in the new town, but in the old town the owners of such places found plenty of ways to carry on business out of the prying eyes of newspapers and the law. One system employed involved an underground tunnel system, whereby one could enter a respectable store or restaurant, access a tunnel, and come out at a tavern, gambling den or brothel.

In time, everyone knew about the tunnels. And although some of the old tunnels survive even today, not much has been found to document what actually went on inside of them. There is one tale, largely folklore in nature, that tells of a young lady who went into one of these tunnels-and never came back out. Her name was Melinda Brolin.

At the time, there was a new rush to the Cripple Creek District, just on the other side of Pikes Peak from Colorado City. Miners were flooding into Colorado City on their way to the goldfields. One of them was Ben Kelly, who left his Chicago home to find his riches in 1899. As was common Kelly left behind the love of his life—our heroine—with the promise to send for her as soon as his prospects looked good.

Six months after Kelly’s departure, Melinda grew impatient and came west herself. She landed in Colorado City, securing a waitress job in a restaurant at today’s 2625 West Colorado Avenue, until she could afford the trek up Ute Pass to Cripple Creek. Colorado City proved to be a friendly place full of friendly people. As months went by, Melinda thought less and less of the beau who had not bothered to send for her. Eventually she found another man and made Colorado City her permanent home.

Back then, Colorado City was practically a sister city to Cripple Creek. The Golden Cycle Mill along today’s Highway 24 processed Cripple Creek ore, and thousands of people divided their time between the two cities. In time, Ben Kelly heard that Melinda was in Colorado City. He also heard about her new lover. A fit of jealousy overtook him and he hopped on the next train for Colorado City, intent on finding his cheating gal and exacting revenge.

By then, Melinda’s dedicated customers, as well as her new beau, were as loyal to Melinda as though she had lived in Colorado City all her life. When they heard Kelly was in town and looking for blood, they lost no time in informing Miss Melinda. The Irish lass quickly took refuge in the basement, disappearing into one of many tunnels underneath Colorado Avenue.

Kelly looked in vain for Melinda all over Colorado City, but nobody ever saw hide nor hair of her—ever again. Even after Kelly gave up and departed for Cripple Creek, Melinda failed to surface from the tunnel. A thorough search turned up nothing, and nobody recalled seeing a woman of her description emerge from either end.  No one ever knew what became of her, and some weeks after her disappearance the tunnel collapsed.

Melissa’s disappearance was the beginning of several strange happenstances. Local legend alleges that a week after the tunnel collapsed, Melinda’s former place of employment caught fire. Melinda’s forlorn lover in Colorado City died a mysterious death and his body was found in Fountain Creek. Shortly after that, even Ben Kelly met his end in a mine at Cripple Creek. If Melinda was around to hear of these fateful events, she never made herself known.

For decades following Melinda’s disappearance, her old workplace pretty much remained the site of generations of other restaurants and cafes. In about 1952 it was known as Baskett’s Cafe, and in 2002 was Gertrude’s Restaurant. These days, the place is an Irish pub called Alchemy. No matter the business, various owners dating as far back as 1900 have claimed there is a ghost. Perhaps in the end, Melinda never left her beloved workplace at all.

Soiled Doves of the Santa Fe Trail: Colorado and New Mexico

c 2017 by Jan MacKell Collins

Portions of this article first appeared in New Legends Magazine.

Trinidad, Colorado is Santa Fe Trail country where, beginning in 1821, the “Mountain Branch” spanned from today’s Pueblo and south through Trinidad, Raton and on to Santa Fe. While the majority of women who traveled the trail were wives and daughters, it wasn’t long before ladies of the night also joined the caravans heading west.

When Fort Pueblo was established in 1853, several red light districts appeared over time as the city grew. One was by the Arkansas River near today’s central Pueblo. Another was near Santa Fe Avenue and today’s 1st Street. Some of the more notorious bordellos in Pueblo included the Stranger’s Home and the Hotel de Omaha, where fights, murders and suicides occurred with alarming frequency.

The Denver & Rio Grande Railroad began laying rails south of Pueblo in the late 1800’s. The tracks first passed through El Moro, a “company town” located four miles from Trinidad. Such places normally forbid prostitution, but in El Moro, George Close successfully ran a dance hall just around the corner from the New State Hotel with its fancy saloon.

South of Trinidad, the railroad continued over the New Mexico border to Raton. By the 1880’s a red light district was flourishing along Garcia Street, just across the tracks from the business district on First Street. Early soiled doves of Raton included a woman called La Josie, who they say could dance up a storm despite having a peg leg.

When the business district relocated to Second Street, Josie and her cohorts immediately filled the empty buildings along First. In time, Raton’s bawdy houses spanned a two block area near the depot and downtown. In 1888, a devastating fire burned much of the red light district and the business district after a disgruntled working girl threw a lamp at one of her customers.

Further south of Raton was Fort Union, near the Cimarron cutoff of the Santa Fe Trail. Soon after the fort was established in 1851, a group of shady ladies set up shop in some nearby caves. A Captain Sykes discovered their presence when he found that stolen goods from the fort were being used to pay them. Sykes ended the sinful business by capturing the women, shaving their heads, and commanding them to move on.

The ladies did move on—to Loma Parda, a small farming community six miles away. There soldiers could gamble, drink, dance, and carouse with women. Julian Baca’s dance hall featured live music twenty four hours a day. The town’s signature whiskey, “Loma Lightening” was often the cause of thefts, fights and murders.

In contrast to these woolly and wild places along the trail, Trinidad offered more refined places of vice. In its early days, Trinidad was as raucous as anywhere else, marked by the 1874 murder of a call girl named Moll Howard. Her killer claimed the woman attacked him with a butcher knife, and owed him a dollar besides. Moll’s friends heard about the murder, formed an angry mob, and hanged the man by the Purgatoire River.

Within a decade, however, Trinidad’s brothels and parlor houses were neatly situated behind Commercial Street on Mill and Plum Streets, but also near Main Street. The fancier houses sported dance floors, and the Grand, at Santa Fe and Main, even had a swimming pool and Turkish baths. “Bar girls” also offered sex above the saloons, and certain restaurants provided curtained booths, where waitresses could offer more than what was on the menu.

Such places received plenty of business from men living in outlying company towns like Berwind, Ludlow, Morley, and Jensen. On slow nights, some brothels resorted to calling the fire department with some made up “emergency”. The firemen would duly show up to “rescue” girls from the second floors via ladders on which the women descended—wearing no underclothes!

When an ornate building on Main was constructed in 1888, the architect’s plans allegedly included the bust of a local madam on the front facade. Who she was remains unknown, but the best known madam was Mae Phelps. In 1900, Mae employed ten lovely ladies from her brothel at 228 Santa Fe Avenue. Mae defied public officials; once during a court appearance, attorney Jamie McKeough demanded whether Mae “operated a public place on the Santa Fe Trail.” Mae replied, “You ought to know, you’ve been there often enough.”

But Mae also worked with the city, establishing a “Madams’ Association” to construct a special trolley system leading to the red light district. The system was built by a written agreement with the city. Mae also established a “Madams’ Rest Home” outside of town where ill or injured girls could recuperate in peace.

Mae and Trinidad’s red light ladies are long gone, but many of their historic bordellos remain in the downtown area, if you know where to look.

Pictured: The Palace in Raton, New Mexico where shady ladies once took center stage. Photo by Jan MacKell Collins.

Ed Harless and His Renegade Wife

c 2019 by Jan MacKell Collins

Portions of this article first appeared in the Colorado Gambler magazine and Brothels, Bordellos & Bad Girls: Prostitution in Colorado 1860-1930.

Pictured: Notorious Blair Street at 12th Street, Silverton, Colorado.

It was no easy trick, being married in the Victorian era. Given the harshness of the times—no electricity, back-breaking chores, a plethora of vices and procreational rather than recreational sex, it is no wonder many marriages ended in divorce. The misery doubled with the death of a child, or if either spouse was given to drinking or beating one another.

In 1899 alone, the newspapers in the booming Cripple Creek District of Colorado were rife with news of unhappy unions. That June, three women applied for divorce. In July, Joe Anderson was arrested for shooting Hense Johnson in Cripple Creek’s Poverty Gulch after the former found the latter with his wife. And in October, Victor’s postmaster reported on a letter from C.M. Jones of Butte Montana, asking for assistance. Jones had just returned from the Klondike and couldn’t find his wife.

Indeed, residents of the district were no strangers to such goings on. So when Ed Harless’ wife turned up missing in Victor, it was no real surprise to anyone except maybe Ed.

The Harless’ first appeared in Victor in 1902. Ed was a miner at the Portland Mine, residing with his bride at 321 South 4th Street. But he apparently balanced his time between Victor and Denver, where he had another home. It was probably during one of his absences that Mrs. Harless unexpectedly packed her bags and caught the next train out of town. What became of her was anyone’s guess.

Ed went looking for his wife, much as any husband might do. He found her in the western slope mining town of Silverton, and the November 29 issue of the Silverton Standard reported what happened next. Harless had arrived from Victor the day before. According to the newspaper, he had been consulting a spirit medium in Denver regarding his wife’s whereabouts. The clairvoyant informed Harless that he had to look no further than Silverton to find her.

Harless beat a path to Marshal Leonard’s door in Silverton. After a short investigation, the good marshal led Harless to a bordello on Silverton’s notorious Blair Street. Like so many before her, the price of Mrs. Harless’ freedom was to land in a strange town with no support. Prostitution was a viable way to get some cash, and the girls on the row had beckoned her in.

Leonard and Harless entered the room occupied by Mrs. Harless. As the marshal stepped to the window to let in some light, the woman let out a scream. The marshal turned in time to see the husband “drawing an ugly looking revolver”. Leonard wrestled the gun away from the angry man and promptly deposited him in the city pokey. Harless was fined $50 and costs.

A few weeks later, the Standard followed up on the story with the comment that Harless had returned to Denver to further consult the psychic. This time, Harless claimed, he would find “the Telluride assassin”. Whether his boast that he could find a western slope criminal by such means was hooey, nobody will ever know. Harless did eventually return to his home in Victor, residing there as late as 1905. As for Mrs. Harless, her name in the city directory is conspicuously absent.

The Legend of Tucker Holland

c 2019 by Jan MacKell Collins

Portions of this article are excerpted from Brothels, Bordellos & Bad Girls: Prostitution in Colorado 1860-1930.

           No doubt about it, Tucker Holland had it bad for Dolly Worling. The 24-year-old thought nothing of spending his time and money on the soiled dove of Colorado City’s red light district west of Colorado Springs. In fact, for a good six months leading up to Tucker’s death, his love for Dolly had turned from mere infatuation into downright obsession.

            It was said Tucker was a good boy, residing in Colorado Springs and holding a steady job. But the enticement of Colorado City was his undoing. Tucker and his brother Tony were frequent visitors to the red light district, and both boys had a fondness for Dolly’s house of ill fame, The Cottage.

            On the night of  January 18, 1908, Tucker and Tony were out buying sandwiches for the Cottage girls when Dolly’s ex-husband, Frank Shank, arrived. Frank was a foul mouthed bartender, but his love for Dolly was undying. The couple had been trying to reconcile for some time. Dolly’s love for Frank and Tucker had become precariously balanced, tilting in favor of Frank whenever the boisterous man darkened her door. When Tucker returned with the sandwiches, he discovered he’d been unceremoniously ousted from Dolly’s house. Employee Nettie Crawford met him at the door. Instructions to find somewhere else to sleep were accompanied by a pile of Tucker’s clothes.

            Crestfallen Tucker went away, muttering to Tony, “This is the end of me.” The following morning, the brothers were once more received at Dolly’s house. Tucker and Dolly retired to her boudoir, where Tucker sat on the bed and played with a revolver. Dolly stood at the window making light of Tucker’s intentions as she listened to him declare his love for her. Outside, a small boy on the sidewalk below was pointing his toy pistol at Dolly’s dog. Dolly joked, “See, Tucker, he’s going to shoot my poodle!”

            But Tucker Holland was in no mood for jokes. “Well, here’s another,” he replied. A second later a shot rang out as Tucker shot himself in the head.

            Dolly screamed, and the other girls rushed into the room. Dolly’s cook, Birdie Ward, took the gun from Tucker’s dying hand and laid it on the dresser. Dolly grabbed the gun and turned it on herself, exclaiming, “If he’s dead, I must die too!” Her girls succeeded in wrestling the gun away from her, and Tony summoned the police.

            When authorities arrived, they found Tucker bleeding profusely as he lay across Dolly’s bed. The pistol was on the dresser, but the police had a hard time swallowing the story of why it was there. Each occupant of the house was immediately arrested, including customer Roy Catton. Tucker was bundled off to St. Francis Hospital, where he died at 3 p.m. He never recovered sufficiently enough to make a statement.

            An inquest following the shooting included questioning of Tony Holland, Nettie Crawford and Birdie Ward, as well as prostitutes Mary Catlin and Myrtle Van Duyne. Frank Shank was questioned, but mostly spewed forth epithets for answers. Dolly also was questioned. The inquiry concluded that Tucker Holland had indeed ended his own life.

            Tucker was buried at Evergreen Cemetery, and his untimely death inspired the city authorities in Colorado City to close the brothels. The prostitutes of Colorado City were accordingly given ten days to leave town. Where Dolly Worley went is unknown, but her baggage certainly contained the memory of the boy who loved her—and lost.

Second To One: Mamie Majors, Colorado City’s (Almost) Reigning Madam

c 2019 by Jan MacKell Collins

Portions of this article have been excerpted from Brothels, Bordellos & Bad Girls: Prostitution in Colorado 1860-1930 (University of New Mexico Press, 2004).

When the Pikes Peak Gold Rush hit in 1859, the new boom created a stir all over what was then Colorado Territory. Hundreds of prospectors and merchants were making their way to the gold fields on the western slope of Colorado. The trails south of Denver included Ute Pass, an ancient Indian trail that skirted the base of Pikes Peak near today’s Colorado Springs. The beginning of the trail was marked by Colorado City, a thriving supply town that included ramshackle houses, churches, a school, hotels and saloons. The first tavern was opened in 1860 by John George.

In 1861 Colorado City was made the capitol of Colorado Territory. But the title was short-lived, and within a decade, Colorado City became the black sheep of El Paso County as the new, elite, and ostentatious city of Colorado Springs managed to win the county seat. Founded by Quaker William Jackson Palmer, Colorado Springs sought to be the “Saratoga of the West” with fancy homes and nice hotels. Liquor, and bawdy houses, were prohibited within in the city limits. It stood to reason, then, that Colorado City should excel where Colorado Springs did not. A variety of activities, from prize fighting to prostitution to drinking to dancing, went on at all hours near what is now the 2500 block of Colorado Avenue.

Through the years, the number of Colorado City saloons steadily grew, from four taverns in 1884 to twenty-three saloons in 1888, plus a number of women practicing the world’s oldest profession. By the 1890’s, these women had been relegated to Washington Avenue, known these days as Cucharras Street, located one block south of the city’s main drag.

Today, the best-known madam of Colorado City remains Laura Bell McDaniel, “Queen of the Colorado City Tenderloin”. Largely due to her reputation for running classy brothels with utmost taste, Laura Bell had little to fear from most of her competitors. Only one woman, in fact, appears to have come closest to achieving the fame and success of Laura Bell McDaniel. Her name was Mamie Majors.

Although she may have arrived in Colorado City as early as 1897, Mamie does not appear in the 1900 census, nor does she appear in city directories until about 1901. Where she had been before coming to Colorado City is unknown, but Mamie apparently brought the know-how of her profession with her. Within a short time, Mamie reigned right up alongside Laura Bell as one of the most prominent madams in town. Similarities between the women are striking indeed. Both ruled over their respective kingdoms with grace and finesse. Both madams also paid their monthly fines to the city on time, subscribed to newspapers and donated to schools, churches and other charities.

Most unfortunately, Mamie chose the most inopportune time to make her debut in Colorado City. Police chief George Birdsall, the newest addition to City Hall in 1900, was making it his business to crack down on gambling, drinking and prostitution. Upon taking his station, Birdsall found the shady ladies of Colorado City were running amuck, with more and more girls showing up to ply their trade.

The year 1901 found Mamie rooming with several other women at 615 Washington Avenue, a brothel owned and operated by Nellie White. Prostitutes within the house included musician Nellie Thomas, and prostitutes Millie Arnold, Edith Baker, Laura Smith, Zoe Wallace and Fredy Bowers. An African-American cook, Lou Riley or Reilly, kept the girls well-nourished.

Lou remained as an employee of both Mamie and Nellie White through 1903. The two madams seem to have run the brothel together and were destined to maintain a business relationship for many years-even after Mamie opened her own brothel in 1902. The new place, at 617 South 6th Street, was smaller. Mamie’s employees there were Katie Stephens and Emma West. Shortly after the move, Nellie White’s brothel burned and she moved back in with Mamie. 

By 1903, Mamie and Nellie’s business was blooming. Emma West remained an employee, alongside prostitutes Blanche Freeman and Mary Stevens. Two musicians, James Tennison and William Robison, played regularly for the house. Emma Jones worked as a cook. Nellie remained with Mamie through June of 1903, when she  was taken to court for prostitution. In a rare show of mercy, the court dismissed her case. And, a subsequent $50 fine for Mamie hardly phased the illustrious madam.

Mamie’s brothel teemed with success even after she moved to 617 Washington. Mamie had purchased the brothel from Laura White, another prominent madam. When Mamie Majors took over, the place became known as The White Elephant and The Mansions – the latter being the same name Laura Bell McDaniels had used for her own elegant parlor house. Did the twosome partner up? Possibly, since Mamie and Laura Bell remained neighbors for the rest of their time in Colorado City.

By June of 1905, Colorado City authorities had enough. City officials were no longer satisfied with the monthly “bribes” the madams paid, and raided the red-light district. Mamie Majors was targeted and arrested on June 22, along with madams Annie Wilson and Mamie Swift. Saloon owners Byron Hames and Otto Fehringer came to the rescue, posting a $1500 bond for the three women.

Charges were levied against all three women, but it was Mamie Majors whom city authorities sought to make an example. Her case came up on July 17 and caused quite a stir in Colorado City. The wealthy madam lost little time in hiring not one, but three attorneys to handle her case: former Cripple Creek judge Samuel Kinsley, Arthur Cornforth and William D. Lombard, whose clients included Laura Bell McDaniel. No doubt Mamie had every confidence in the world when she reappeared in court with the three attorneys on her arm.

In fact, Mamie’s antics seem to have been quite bold, for even while she was awaiting trial, her business continued at 617 Washington. But despite Mamie’s pleas in court and testimony of her many good deeds, the District Attorney painted a picture of a destitute, hardened and horrible woman who was getting what she deserved. Ultimately, Mamie was found guilty, but the determined madam was undaunted and used every power she had to fight the charge. A motion for a new trial was filed on July 31.

Unfortunately for Mamie, the cards were stacked against her. Witnesses for the prosecution consisted of Police Chief Birdsall, city detective John Rowan, Police Magistrate and former mayor J.D. Faulkner, and police officers Leroy Gilliland and Ed Rettinger. Also called to testify against Mamie were Anna Rook, who had worked for Mamie in 1903, and Ioma Williams. When Ioma took the stand, she stated, “I live at 617 Washington with Miss Majors. I refuse to answer to what kind of a house she kept there, as it might degrade me.”

Apparently Mamie’s other employees were not called to testify, but further evidence showed Mamie had averaged one court visit per month in the previous eighteen months. Although it was established that Nellie White owned the house and paid the bills there, Mamie continued to be prosecuted for her actions. On August 3, the motion for a new trial was overruled. Judge L.W. Cunningham sentenced Mamie to six months in El Paso County Jail, plus court costs.

Mamie appealed Cunningham’s decision to the state supreme court. In the meantime, she took over Anna Wilson’s bordello at 621 Washington in January of 1906, after Anna was convicted of selling beer to a minor. Mamie’s employees were Ethel Gray, Clara Stillwell, and musician Fred Wright. Given the size of the two-story, four-square home, Mamie likely employed several other women as well.

The move certainly did not fool authorities, nor did Mamie’s refusal to quit the profession. In September of 1906, the original judgment against Mamie was upheld. Still determined to clear her name, Mamie moved next door to her brothel, where she appears to have been the sole occupant. Next, she enlisted her influential friends to secure a governors’ pardon. On September 20, 1906, The Colorado City Iris printed a copy of a letter from Governor Henry A. Buchtel to Reverend Frank W. Hullinger of Colorado City. Buchtel’s published letter was a reply to one he had received from the Women’s Christian Temperance Union of Colorado City, a letter he called “discourteous.” 

The note read in part, “Senator Cornforth came with a bundle of letters from your most prominent people, asking for the pardon of Mamie Majors, but I did not pardon her at all.” Buchtel’s letter went on to include excerpts from letters written by Byron Hames, Judge Orr, and several other prominent citizens. Each letter requested that Mamie be released from serving her upcoming jail time. Hames’ letter stated in part, “Having known Miss Mamie Majors for twenty years and found her always upright and honorable in her business dealings, we would consider it a great favor if you would pardon her from the charge that is now against her.” Judge Orr’s letter stated she had ceased business. Most interesting were letters from J.D. Faulkner and Officer Rettinger, since they had initially testified against Mamie. All of the letters made Mamie Majors appear more innocent than a June bride.

Governor Buchtel reiterated in his published letter, “Now in the face of all this, I did not pardon Mamie Majors. Please fix that in your mind. I would like to say it over and over about 10,000 times, I DID NOT PARDON MAMIE MAJORS.” The good governors’ name was at last cleared in the eyes of Colorado City’s do-gooders. But what the Colorado City Iris failed to mention until a few days later was that Buchtel had reduced Mamie’s sentence from six months to thirty days. The newspaper further emphasized that Senator Arthur Cornforth had informed Buchtel that Mamie was not even in jail. Upon discovering this, the governor insisted she immediately be incarcerated.

After serving her thirty days, Mamie returned to her wicked ways. She moved back to 615 Washington, and the 1905-6 directory lists Lola Siggars and Margaret Scott as employees. In the wake of her scandalous court case, many of Mamie’s employees had parted ways with her, but she still retained friendships with many of her former girls. Even after employee Carrie Briscoe married Burt Wells in 1902, Mamie paid for shipment of Carrie’s body when she died of tuberculosis in November 1906.

Mamie continued to rebuild her business while weathering mass meetings of the W.C.T.U., a slew of new ordinances, and Mayor Ira Foote—the next official to vow to clean up Colorado City. In January of 1909, the red-light district suffered a series of devastating fires that burned down many brothels, including Mamie’s. In April, the Iris noted that despite a short-lived reformation, both Laura Bell McDaniel and Mamie Majors were at it again. “No sooner had the new officers held up the hands and taken the oath of office to support the laws of the land,” blasted the newspaper, “than Laura Bell, the oldest and most influential sinner of them all, started a brick building said to cost $10,000. Mamie Majors, once sentenced to six months in the county jail and pardoned by Governor Buchtel, on the pleas that she had reformed, fitted up the old ‘City Hotel’ and opened up the house in full blast.”

The city directory for 1909 lists Mamie at 626 Washington. By May, Mamie and her cohorts had reverted to paying their customary $25.00 in monthly fines. From September 1909 through February 1910, Mamie paid an average of $41.00 per month in fines, all for keeping a bawdy or disorderly house. Mamie next relocated to 710 Washington. In 1913, Mamie and inmates Marie Fitzgerald and Jennie Johnson (formerly a domestic servant for Laura Bell McDaniel) were fined again.

The last act of benevolence committed by Mamie Majors happened in December of 1909, when retired madam Blanche Burton’s died after her dress caught on fire. Mamie was with Blanche as she died, and paid for her funeral expenses.

Mamie remained in business through at least 1916 when Colorado City succeeded in declaring liquor unlawful within city limits. With the demise of the saloons and gambling houses, the pressure to cease business was even greater on prostitutes. Eventually Mamie gave in to the law and like so many others, disappeared without a trace. Her competitor, Laura Bell McDaniel, died in 1918. Today, one of Mamie’s brothels at 2616 West Cucharras is an apartment house for seniors, and one of the few brothels in Colorado City to remain in its original condition.